This is meant as a how-to for programmers interested in developing the Twisted networking library using virtualenvs. I’m assuming you’re working from a linux/unix based development environment. At a later date, I’ll see if the same setup can be used on windows.
Create isolated development environments that target different interpreters and require different dependencies.
When using python to develop a project, it is very easy to accidentally install packages that can be found by your system python. This is a problem because it makes it difficult to isolate dependencies on a per project basis. A better approach is to create isolated environments in which dependencies can be installed.
Virtualenv is a tool that creates isolated python environments. When using a virtualenv, pip installs dependencies into a location that is only visible to the virtualenv. Virtualenvs are wonderful because you can test out different versions of libraries without worring about accidentally upgrading a dependency that would affect another project.
With python 2, one needed to install the virtualenv application to be able to use it, in python3 it is baked in to the standard installation. However, the method I’m suggesting you use doesn’t require you to install virtualenv yourself.
By default, virtualenv is setup to target a specific python interpreter,
normally the one that is available in your
$PATH environment variable.
This means that whatever python is in your path, is the python that will
be used when creating your virtualenv. While this is helpful, it only
solves the problem of being able to install dependencies in an isolated
environment. It doesn’t solve the problem of a user wanting to target a
different interpreter that is installed on the host system. This is
where pyenv comes in.
Pyenv manages the installation and removal of python interpreters. Instead of needing to manually manipulate your \$PATH to switch to a different interpreter, pyenv allows you to specify which python you would like to use. For example, to find and install pypy (with pyenv installed) you only need to type the following:
# displays a list of python version names $ pyenv install -l | grep pypy # select the pypy version you'd like to install $ pyenv install pypy-2.4.0
Once this command completes, pypy-2.4.0 will be installed. You can access a new pypy shell by typing
$ pyenv shell pypy-2.4.0
This is an improvement as you no longer have to manually manipulate your path in order to switch versions. But, if you are not careful, you can still relatively easily install what would be system level dependencies. (By this I mean, you can still install a package at the pypy-2.4.0 env-level). Luckily, there is a tool that makes it easy to create virtualenvs using your pyenvs.
Pyenv-virtualenv allows you to create a virtualenv that will use a specific interpreter.
$ pyenv virtualenv 2.7.8 twisted278
The command creates a new virtualenv named
twisted278 which uses the
python 2.7.8 interpreter. If you wanted to create a new virtualenv
for python 3, without having python 3 installed, you would do the
# find the python version you'd like to install $ pyenv install -l # 3.3.5 looks right, install it $ pyenv install 3.3.5 # make a new virtualenv $ pyenv virtualenv 3.3.5 twisted336
Note, it isn’t required to append the name of your interpreter to the virtualenv. I use this convention to make it easy to see which interpreter I’m actually targeting.
As part of the Twisted porting process, all Twisted code must be verified to work on python 2.6, python 2.7, and python 3.3. Using pyenv and virtualenv you can create a set of environments from which all of the tests can be run.
If you are using a mac and have homebrew installed, installing pyenv and pyenv-virtualenv is extremely easy, simply do
$ brew install pyenv pyenv-virtualenv
If you are using linux, you should follow the directions specified on the project website.
As of right now, you should install python interpreters 2.6.9, 2.7.8 and 3.3.5. This can be done with the following command
$ pyenv install 2.6.9 2.7.8 3.3.5
Once these have installed successfully, you can create the virtualenvs using the following commands. It does not matter in what directory these commands are executed.
$ pyenv virtualenv 2.6.9 twisted269 $ pyenv virtualenv 2.7.8 twisted278 $ pyenv virtualenv 3.3.5 twisted335
This will create three new virtualenvs inside of ~/.pyenv/versions
Navigate to where ever your Twisted repository is stored, mine, for example, is stored in ~/Code/twisted. If you are using bash or zsh, you can run the activate script for each of the environments using the following command
$ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted269/bin/activate
Once you’ve activated the virtualenv, you can verify which interpreter is targeting using the following.
(twisted269)$ python -v Python 2.6.9 (twisted269)$ which python /Users/chris/.pyenv/versions/twisted269/bin/python
Once the virtualenvs have been created, you can begin installing any dependencies you might need. At a bare minimum, Twisted’s test suite requires zope.interface to be installed. This will need to be installed in each of the virtualenvs in which you would like to run tests. I handle this, by creating a requirements.txt file and filling it with the dependencies I want to install in each virtualenv.
$ cd ~/Code/twisted $ echo "zope.interface" > requirements.txt $ pip install -r requirements.txt
Shameless plug -
if you’d like Twisted to use the extra_requires
syntax available from setuptools to install optional dependencies, you
could review ticket #3696!
It was merged in Twisted 15.1. Yay!
To install the dependencies listed in the requirements.txt file, execute the following commands in each virtualenv.
$ cd ~/Code/twisted $ echo "zope.interface" > requirements.txt # install zope.interface into the twisted269 virtualenv $ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted269/bin/activate (twisted269)$ pip install -r requirements.txt (twisted269)$ deactivate # install zope.interface into the twisted278 virtualenv $ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted278/bin/activate (twisted278)$ pip install -r requirements.txt (twisted278)$ deactivate # install zope.interface into the twisted335 virtualenv $ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted335/bin/activate (twisted335)$ pip3 install -r requirements.txt (twisted335)$ deactivate
The benefit of having created each of these virtualenvs, is that you may now run the test suite for each of the different interpreters. My typical workflow is to have several terminal windows open, each using a different virtualenv/pyenv combination. This way, if I make a change to the source, I can run the tests for each interpreter one by one, without having to constantly activate and deactivate virtualenvs.
To run the tests for python 2, you just enter the following
$ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted269/bin/activate (twisted269)$ cd ~/Code/twisted (twisted269)$ ./bin/trial twisted
The same goes for python 2.7.8.
For python3, the tests are run using a small utility script saved inside of twisted/admin.
$ source ~/.pyenv/versions/twisted335/bin/activate (twisted335)$ cd ~/Code/twisted (twisted335)$ ./admin/run-python 3-tests
If you haven’t already noticed, the code to activate a virtualenv is pretty verbose. I Virtualenv-wrapper project can be used to simplify activating virtualenvs. I use the fish shell and have defined a function to activate virtualenvs. The sad part about the fish function is that is it only works with pyenvs that provide an activate.fish command. Here is the code:
function actenv --description 'activate the virtualenv with the given name' . ~/.pyenv/versions/$argv/bin/activate.fish end
If you have gotten this far and followed the examples, you should have been able to create new virtualenvs that are pinned to specific interpreters. You should also have been able to run tests for twisted using these virtualenvs.